Archives of Empire

Volume 2. The Scramble for Africa

Archives of Empire

Book Pages: 852 Illustrations: 34 illus. (10 lineart, 17 b&w photos, 6 maps, 1 table) Published: January 2004

History > World History, Literature and Literary Studies > Literary Criticism, Postcolonial and Colonial Studies

A rich collection of primary materials, the multivolume Archives of Empire provides a documentary history of nineteenth-century British imperialism from the Indian subcontinent to the Suez Canal to southernmost Africa. Barbara Harlow and Mia Carter have carefully selected a diverse range of texts that track the debates over imperialism in the ranks of the military, the corridors of political power, the lobbies of missionary organizations, the halls of royal geographic and ethnographic societies, the boardrooms of trading companies, the editorial offices of major newspapers, and far-flung parts of the empire itself. Focusing on a particular region and historical period, each volume in Archives of Empire is organized into sections preceded by brief introductions. Documents including mercantile company charters, parliamentary records, explorers’ accounts, and political cartoons are complemented by timelines, maps, and bibligraphies. Unique resources for teachers and students, these volumes reveal the complexities of nineteenth-century colonialism and emphasize its enduring relevance to the “global markets” of the twenty-first century.

While focusing on the expansion of the British Empire, The Scramble for Africa illuminates the intense nineteenth-century contest among European nations over Africa’s land, people, and resources. Highlighting the 1885 Berlin Conference in which Britain, France, Germany, Portugal, and Italy partitioned Africa among themselves, this collection follows British conflicts with other nations over different regions as well as its eventual challenge to Leopold of Belgium’s rule of the Congo. The reports, speeches, treatises, proclamations, letters, and cartoons assembled here include works by Henry M. Stanley, David Livingstone, Joseph Conrad, G. W. F. Hegel, Winston Churchill, Charles Darwin, and Arthur Conan Doyle. A number of pieces highlight the proliferation of companies chartered to pursue Africa’s gold, diamonds, and oil—particularly Cecil J. Rhodes’s British South Africa Company and Frederick Lugard’s Royal Niger Company. Other documents describe debacles on the continent—such as the defeat of General Gordon in Khartoum and the Anglo-Boer War—and the criticism of imperial maneuvers by proto-human rights activists including George Washington Williams, Mark Twain, Olive Schreiner, and E.D. Morel.


“It is hard not to get excited over the wealth o f material provided by The East India Company to the Suez Canal (vol. 1) and The Scramble for Africa (vol. 2), which will prove invaluable for both pedagogical and scholarly use.” — Jeanne Dubino, Nineteenth Century Studies

"Archives of Empire promises to be a rich resource for scholars of British imperialism, of the impact of European colonialism, and of the role of empire in British political and popular culture. . . . [T]he first two volumes in the series offer a stimulating introduction to contemporary scholarship in imperial history and post-colonial theory." — Martin Thomas, History

"[A] wonderful anthology. . . . [A]n anthology to be enthusiastically welcomed by those who teach empire, and it offers both classics and new works for close readings and analysis. . . ." — Carol Summers , Itinerario

"[T]his is easily the richest single collection of primary source materials on British imperialism available in print. . . . The first two volumes of Archives of Empire supply us with a rich selection of source material on British imperialism in India and Africa, and when reinforced by the final two volumes, the completed project will provide an unrivaled resource to students of empire. And by its very existence this "reader" will stand as a monument to the remarkable efflorescence of interest in imperial and colonial studies in recent years."

— Dane Kennedy, Journal of Colonialism & Colonial History

"This thoughtful and interesting collection of primary materials offers much to students and teachers alike. . . . This is a first-rate work that deserves widespread adoption." — Jeremy Black , African History

"This valuable collection of documents from and about the British Empire will prove useful to students and scholars." — Journal of Interdisciplinary History

"With selections ranging from company charters, missionary tracts, satirical cartoons, legislative records, to literary accounts, these anthologies present a fascinating glimpse of the many sides of imperialism." — Heidi Hanrahan English Literature in Transition

Archives of Empire offers a valuable and original intervention in contemporary studies of imperialism, providing a rich array of source material pertaining to the imperial project and the wide-ranging grounds for its critique.” — Anne McClintock, author of Imperial Leather: Race, Gender, and Sexuality in the Colonial Contest

“Archives of Empire is a substantial and valuable project containing a generous sampling of key primary texts for understanding both the crucial events in and the debates around British imperialism in the nineteenth century.” — David Lloyd, coeditor of The Politics of Culture in the Shadow of Capital


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Author/Editor Bios Back to Top

Barbara Harlow is Louann and Larry Temple Centennial Professor of English at the University of Texas at Austin.

Mia Carter is Associate Professor of English at the University of Texas at Austin.

Table of Contents Back to Top
Acknowledgments xv

General Introduction: Readings in Imperialism and Orientalism xvii

Volume Introduction: The Scramble for Africa 1

I. The Berlin Conference 1885: Making/ Mapping History

Introduction: The Scramble for Africa: From the Conference at Berlin to the Incident at Fashoda 13

Chronology of Events 16

Africa in 1886: The Scramble Half Complete [map] 17

Africa after the Scramble, 1912 [map] 18

Africa 1898, with Charter Companies [map] 19

Joseph Conrad, Excerpts from Heart of Darkness (1898/99) 20

G. W. F. Hegel, "Africa" (1822) 21

General Act of the Conference of Berlin (1885) 28

"The Black Baby" (1894) [illustration] 29

Arthur Berriedale Keith, "International Rivalry and the Berlin Conference" (1919) 47

"The 'Irrepressible' Tourist" (1885) [illustration] 59

Hilaire Belloc, Excerpt from "The Modern Traveller" [1898] 60

Winston Churchill, "The Fashoda Incident" (1899) 65

Lord Alfred Milner, "Geography and Statecraft" (1907) 76

"Marchez! Marchand!" (1898) [illustration] 77

Dr. Wilhelm Junker, Excerpt from Travels in Africa during the Years 1882-1886, with etching (1892) 79

"Africa Shared Out" (1899) [editorial with cartoon] 81

II. The Body Politic: Rationalizing Race

Introduction: The Body Politic: Rationalizing Race 85

Slaves 91

William Wilberforce, "The African Slave Trade" (1789) 93

William Pitt the Younger, "William Pitt the Younger Indicts the Slave trade and Forsees a Liberated Africa" (1792) 100

Thomas Carlyle, "The Nigger Question" (1849) 108

Charles Dickens, "The Noble Savage" (1853) [with classified advertisement from the Illustrated London News] 134

Species 141

Count Joseph Arthur Gobineau, "Moral and Intellectual Characteristics of the Three Great Varieties" (1856) 143

Charles Darwin, "Struggle for Existence" (1871) 153

Charles Darwin, "On the Formation of the Races of Man" (1871) 160

Digain Williams, Excerpt from "Darwin" (1922) 167

James W. Redfield, "Comparative Physiognomy" (1852) 169

Ernest Renan, Excerpts from The Future of Science (1893) 178

Self Governance 187

Walter Bagehot, "Nation-Making" (1869) 189

Herbert Spencer, "The Primitive Man---Intellectual" (1906) 195

Benjamin Kidd, "The Principles of the Relations of Our Civilization to the Tropics" (1898) 208

Dudley Kidd, Excerpts from Kafir Socialism (1908) 222

Rudyard Kipling, "How the Leopard Got His Spots" (1902) 232

III. The Political Corps

The Mission 241

Introduction: The Mission: Christianity, Civilization, and Commerce 243

William Booth, Salvation Army Songs (n.d.) 247

David Livingstone, Dr. Livingstone's Cambridge Lectures (1858) 253

Henry M. Stanley, Excerpts from How I Found Livingstone (1872) 278

Livingstone's Journeys, 1841-1856 [map] 279

M.B. Synge, "Preparing the Empire: Livingstone and Stanley in Central Africa" (1908) 300

Elizabeth Rundle Charles (?), "In Memory of Dr. Livingstone" (1874) 304

Sir Bartle Frere, "Dr. Livingstone" (1874) 306

Count Joseph Arthur Gobineau, "Influence of Christianity upon Moral and intellectual Diversity of Races" (1856) 319

Matthew Arnold, "The Bishop and the Philosopher" (1863) 328

International Emigration Office, Excerpts from The Surplus (1909) 350

Excerpts from The Salvation Army British Empire Exhibition Handbook (1924) 358

The Administration: Lugard and the Royal Niger Company 365

Introduction: Inheritors of Empire, Agents of Change: Lord Lugard and Mary Kingsley 367

"Royal Charter Granted to the National African Company, later called the Royal Niger Company" (1884) 372

George Taubman Goldie and Frederick Lugard, Selected Correspondence: The Royal Niger Company (1894) 380

Frederick Lugard, Excerpts from The Diaries of Lord Lugard: Nigeria (1894-1895,1898) 388

Frederick Lugard, "Duties of Political Officers and Miscellaneous subjects" (1913-1918) 402

Frederick Lugard, Excerpts from The Dual Mandate in British Tropical Africa (1922) 417

Mary Kingsley, "The Clash of Cultures" (1901) 439

Mary Kingsley, "A Letter to the Editor of 'The New Africa'" (n.d.) 457

Flora L. Shaw (Lady Lugard), Excerpts from A Tropical Dependency (1905) 460

The Administration: Cecil J. Rhodes and the British South Africa Company 473

Introduction: Cecil J. Rhodes; Colossus or Caricature? 475

Olive Schreiner, Excerpt from Trooper Peter Halket of Mashonaland (1897) 478

"The Rhodes Colossus" (1892) [illustration] 480

"My Career Is Only Beginning!" (1896) [illustration] 481

"South Africa before and after Cecil Rhodes" (1896) [map] 483

H. Rider Haggard, "We Abandon Hope" (1885) 484

John Buchan, "My Uncle's Gift Is Many Times Multiplied" (1910) 492

Cecil John Rhodes, Excerpts from The Speeches of Cecil Rhodes 1881-1900 (1900) 496

Lord Randolph S. Churchill, Excerpts from Men, Mines, and Animals in South Africa (1895) 529

Dr. L. S. Jameson. "Personal Reminiscences of Mr. Rhodes" (1897) 531

"The Last Will and Testament of Cecil John Rhodes" (1902) 538

Rudyard Kipling, "The Burial" (1902) 560

IV. Crises of Empire

Gordon at Khartoum 565

Introduction: Gordon at Khartoum: From Cavil to Catastrophe 566

Chronology of Events 569

Charles G. Gordon, Excerpts from The Journals of Major-General C. B. Gordon, G. B. at Kartoum (1885) 569

"At Last!" (1885) [illustration] 572

"Too Late!" (1885) [illustration] 573

Queen Victoria, Letters to Mary Gordon (1890) 578

Lytton Strachey, "The End of General Gordon" (1918) 580

Lord Cromer (Evelyn Baring), "Relief Expedition' (1908) 583

Wilfred S. Blunt, Excerpts from Gordon at Khartoum (1911) 591

Randolph H. S. Churchill, "The Desertion of General Gordon" (1884) 596

Lord Wolseley, Excerpt from In Relief of Gordon (1885) 600

Rudolf C. Slatin Pasha, Excerpt from Fire and Sword in the Sudan (1896) 602

Major F. R. Wingate, "The Siege and Fall of Khartum" (1892) 603

John Buchan, "Act the Fifth: The End" (1934) 616

Rudyard Kipling, "Fuzzy-Wuzzy" (1898) 622

The Graphic, Christmas Number, 1887 624

"Gordon's Dream---The Martyr-Hero of Khartoum" (1887) [illustration] 625

The Anglo-Boer War 627

Introduction: The Boer War: Accusations and Apologias 629

"Across th
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Paper ISBN: 978-0-8223-3189-6 / Cloth ISBN: 978-0-8223-3152-0
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