• Preface xiii

    Acknowledgments xix

    On Redress for Racial Injustice / Michael T. Martin and Marilyn Yaquinto 1

    Part 1. Racial Inequality and White Privilege

    Racial Injustices in U.S. History and Their Legacy / David Lyons 33

    Race Preferences and Race Privileges / Michael K. Brown, Martin Carnoy, Elliott Currie, Troy Duster, David B. Oppenheimer, Marjorie M. Shultz, and David Wellman 55

    A Sociology of Wealth and Racial Inequality / Melvin L. Oliver and Thomas M. Shapiro 91

    Part 2. Law, Citizenship, and the State

    The Case for Reparations / Robert Fullinwider 121

    Toward a Theory of Racial Reparations / James Bolner 134

    The Constitutionality of Black Reparations / Boris L. Bittker and Roy L. Brooks 143

    The Theory of Restitution: The African American Case / Richard America 160

    Reparations to African Americans? / J. Angelo Corlett 170

    Part 3. Reparations: Formation and Modes of Redress

    "A Day of Reckoning": Dreams of Reparations / Robin D. G. Kelley 203

    Forty Acres, or, An Act of Bad Faith / Jeffrey R. Kerr-Ritchie 222

    The Economic Basis for Reparations to Black America / Robert S. Browne 238

    The Political Economy of Ending Racism and the World Conference against Racism: The Economics of Reparations / William Darity Jr. and Dania Frank 249

    The Rise of the Reparations Movement / Martha Biondi 255

    Part 4. Case Studies of Injustice and Intervention

    Nineteenth-Century New York City's Complicity with Slavery: Documenting the Case for Reparations / Alan Singer 275

    Railroads, Race, and Reparations / Theodore Kornweibel Jr. 294

    Reparations: A Viable Strategy to Address the Enigma of African American Health / David R. Williams and Chiquita Collins 305

    Residential Segregation and Persistent Urban Poverty / Douglas S. Massey 331

    Part 5. Mobilizing Strategies

    The Politics of Racial Reparations / Charles P. Henry 353

    The Case for U.S. Reparations to African Americans / Adrienne D. Davis 371

    The Promises and Pitfalls of Reparations / Yusuf Nuruddin 379

    Reparation as Reparations for Slavery and Jim Crow / Robert Johnson Jr. 402

    What's Next? Japanese American Redress and African American Reparations / Eric K. Yamamoto 411

    The Reparations Movement: An Assessment of Recent and Current Activism / Sam Anderson, Muntu Matsimela, and Yusuf Nuruddin 427

    Reparations: Strategic Considerations for Black Americans / C. J. Munford 447

    Tulsa Reparations: The Survivors' Story / Charles J. Ogletree Jr. 452

    Race for Power: The Global Balance of Power and Reparations / Gerald Horne 469

    Documents

    Section 1. Federal Acts and Resolutions 485

    Section 2. State Legislation 518

    Section 3. Municipal Resolutions 536

    Section 4. Advocacy and Activism 559

    Section 5. Case Studies of Redress 637

    Section 6. Lawsuits 660

    Selected Bibliography 673

    Contributors 683

    Acknowledgment of Copyrights 687

    Index 691
  • Michael T. Martin

    David Lyons

    Michael K. Brown

    Melvin L. Oliver

    Robert Fullinwider

    James Bolner

    Boris L. Bittker

    Richard F. America

    J. Angelo Corlett

    Robin D. G. Kelley

    Jeffrey R. Kerr-Ritchie

    Robert S. Browne

    Martha Biondi

    Alan Singer

    Theodore Kornweibel, Jr.

    David R. Williams

    Douglas S. Massey

    Charles P. Henry

    Adrian D. Davis

    Yusuf Nuruddin

    Robert Johnson, Jr.

    Eric Yamamoto

    Sam Anderson

    C. J. Munford

    Charles J. Ogletree

    Gerald Horne

    Marilyn Yaquinto

    Martin Carnoy

    Elliott Currie

    Troy Duster

    David B. Oppenheimer

    Marjorie M. Shultz

    David Wellman

    Thomas Shapiro

    Roy L. Brooks

    Dania Frank

    Chiquita Collins

    Muntu Matsimela

  • Redress will serve as an important handbook for reparations scholars and activists, giving the arguments and data necessary to rethink the movement and to move forward in a constructive manner. . . . Reparations needs some prophets and perhaps it will get some from those who read and are inspired by Martin and Yaquinto’s important volume.”

    “[E]ach paper makes a distinct contribution. In addition, the chapters are accompanied by a final section that contains numerous important documents related to the issue of slavery reparations, including legislation, government resolutions, lawsuits, activist declarations, and case study summaries. . . . [F]or the reparations researcher it is extremely useful to have all of these documents compiled into one source. For the sociologist, the volume contributes to our empirical and sociolegal understanding of slavery reparations.”

    “[T]he best available collection of scholarly articles, activist-group statements, and government decisions [on] reparations . . . for African-Americans.”

    “For educators, this book is fundamentally useful. . . . Most helpful for the classroom, though, is the final section of primary sources. These include federal acts and resolutions, state legislation, municipal resolutions, seminal documents from activist organizations, case studies of redress, and opinions from key lawsuits. I doubt there is another work that houses these reparations-specific documents with this level of precision. Nor is there one volume with as much intellectual depth and breadth on this crucial topic.”

    "[S]tudents . . . will find this to be a useful, well-indexed reader. Recommended."

    Reviews

  • Redress will serve as an important handbook for reparations scholars and activists, giving the arguments and data necessary to rethink the movement and to move forward in a constructive manner. . . . Reparations needs some prophets and perhaps it will get some from those who read and are inspired by Martin and Yaquinto’s important volume.”

    “[E]ach paper makes a distinct contribution. In addition, the chapters are accompanied by a final section that contains numerous important documents related to the issue of slavery reparations, including legislation, government resolutions, lawsuits, activist declarations, and case study summaries. . . . [F]or the reparations researcher it is extremely useful to have all of these documents compiled into one source. For the sociologist, the volume contributes to our empirical and sociolegal understanding of slavery reparations.”

    “[T]he best available collection of scholarly articles, activist-group statements, and government decisions [on] reparations . . . for African-Americans.”

    “For educators, this book is fundamentally useful. . . . Most helpful for the classroom, though, is the final section of primary sources. These include federal acts and resolutions, state legislation, municipal resolutions, seminal documents from activist organizations, case studies of redress, and opinions from key lawsuits. I doubt there is another work that houses these reparations-specific documents with this level of precision. Nor is there one volume with as much intellectual depth and breadth on this crucial topic.”

    "[S]tudents . . . will find this to be a useful, well-indexed reader. Recommended."

  • “A truly impressive achievement in its range of approaches, depth of analysis, and variety of sources, this book should immediately become the definitive text on the subject of reparations for black Americans.” — Charles W. Mills, John Evans Professor of Moral and Intellectual Philosophy, Northwestern University

    “It will be far harder to dismiss the deeply resonant and persistent demand for reparations in the wake of this remarkable collection of interdisciplinary research and historical documentation. This monumental work is ideal for teaching how history and policy intersect.” — David Roediger, Kendrick C. Babcock Professor of History, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

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  • Description

    An exceptional resource, this comprehensive reader brings together primary and secondary documents related to efforts to redress historical wrongs against African Americans. These varied efforts are often grouped together under the rubric “reparations movement,” and they are united in their goal of “repairing” the injustices that have followed from the long history of slavery and Jim Crow. Yet, as this collection reveals, there is a broad range of opinions as to the form that repair might take. Some advocates of redress call for apologies; others for official acknowledgment of wrongdoing; and still others for more tangible reparations: monetary compensation, government investment in disenfranchised communities, the restitution of lost property and rights, and repatriation.

    Written by activists and scholars of law, political science, African American studies, philosophy, economics, and history, the twenty-six essays include both previously published articles and pieces written specifically for this volume. Essays theorize the historical and legal bases of claims for redress; examine the history, strengths, and limitations of the reparations movement; and explore its relation to human rights and social justice movements in the United States and abroad. Other essays evaluate the movement’s primary strategies: legislation, litigation, and mobilization. While all of the contributors support the campaign for redress in one way or another, some of them engage with arguments against reparations.

    Among the fifty-three primary documents included in the volume are federal, state, and municipal acts and resolutions; declarations and statements from organizations including the Black Panther Party and the NAACP; legal briefs and opinions; and findings and directives related to the provision of redress, from the Oklahoma Commission to Study the Tulsa Race Riot of 1921 to the mandate for the Greensboro Truth and Reconciliation Commission. Redress for Historical Injustices in the United States is a thorough assessment of the past, present, and future of the modern reparations movement.

    Contributors. Richard F. America, Sam Anderson, Martha Biondi, Boris L. Bittker, James Bolner, Roy L. Brooks, Michael K. Brown, Robert S. Browne, Martin Carnoy, Chiquita Collins, J. Angelo Corlett, Elliott Currie, William A. Darity, Jr., Adrienne Davis, Michael C. Dawson, Troy Duster, Dania Frank, Robert Fullinwider, Charles P. Henry, Gerald C. Horne, Robert Johnson, Jr., Robin D. G. Kelley, Jeffrey R. Kerr-Ritchie, Theodore Kornweibel, Jr., David Lyons, Michael T. Martin, Douglas S. Massey , Muntu Matsimela , C. J. Munford, Yusuf Nuruddin, Charles J. Ogletree Jr., Melvin L. Oliver, David B. Oppenheimer, Rovana Popoff, Thomas M. Shapiro, Marjorie M. Shultz, Alan Singer, David Wellman, David R. Williams, Eric K. Yamamoto, Marilyn Yaquinto

    About The Author(s)

    Michael T. Martin is Professor of African American and African Diaspora Studies and Director of the Black Film Center/Archive at Indiana University. He is the editor of New Latin American Cinema and Cinemas of the Black Diaspora and a coeditor of Studies of Development and Change in the Modern World.

    Marilyn Yaquinto is Assistant Professor of Communication at Truman State University. She is the author of Pump ‘Em Full of Lead: A Look at Gangsters on Film and a former journalist with the Los Angeles Times.

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