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  • Acknowledgments xi

    A Note on Style xiii

    Introduction 1

    I. Origins, Conquest, and Colonial Rule

    The Origin of Fire / Cayapo Legend 16

    Noble Savages / John Hemming 20

    A Description of the Tupinamba / Anonymous 25

    The First Wave / Warren Dean 33

    Letter to Governor Tome de Sousa / Manoel da Nobrega 37

    From the River of Jenero / Francisco Suares 41

    The Sins of Maranhao / Antonio Vieira 43

    Minas Uprising of 1720 / Anonymous 45

    Smuggling in the Diamond District / George Gardner 52

    Decree Elevating Brazil to a Kingdom / Joao VI 56

    II. Imperial and Republican Brazil

    Declaration of Brazilian Independence, 1822 / Pedro I 63

    The Baron of Parnaiba / George Gardner 65

    Uprising in Maranhao, 1839-1840 / Domingos Jose Goncalves de Magalhaes 69

    A Paraiba Plantation, 1850-1860 / Stanley J. Stein 76

    The Paraguayan War Victory Parade / Peter M. Beattie 87

    A Vanishing Way of Life / Gilberto Freyre 91

    A Mirror of Progress / Dain Borges 93

    Drought and the Image of the Northeast / Gerald M. Greenfield 100

    Dom Pedro the Magnanimous / Mary Wilhelmine Williams 104

    Solemn Inaugural Session of December 24, 1900 / Congress of Engineering and Industry 107

    Intellectuals at Play / Olavo Bilac Colllection 109

    City of Mist / Manoel Sousa Pinto 110

    The Civilist Campaign / J. R. Lobao 113

    Gaucho Leaders, 1923 / Photograph 115

    Factory Rules, 1924 / Abramo Eberle Metalworks Management 116

    III. Slavery and Its Aftermath

    The War against Palmares / Anonymous 125

    Slave Life at Morro Velho Mine / Sir Richard Francis Burton 131

    Scenes from the Slave Trade / Logbook Entries; Joao Dunshee de Abrantes 135

    Cruelty to Slaves / Thomas Ewbank 138

    Slavery and Society / Joaquim Nabuco 143

    Abolition Decree, 1888 / Princess Isabel and Rodrigo Augusto da Silva 145

    Laws Regulating Beggars in Minas Gerais, 1900 / Liegislature of Minas Gerais 146

    IV. The Vargas Era

    The Social Question / Platform of the Liberal Alliance, 1930 156

    Manifesto, May 1930 / Luis Carlos Prestes 158

    Heroes of the Revolution / Composite Postcard Photograph 160

    The "Gold for Sao Paulo" Building, 1932 / Cristina Mehrtens 162

    Where They Talk about Rosa Luxemburg / Patricia Galvao 166

    Two Versions of Factory Life / Photographers Unknown 172

    Seized Correspondence from Communists, 1935-1945 / Dossier 20, Police Archives 176

    The Paulista Synagogue / Gustavo Barroso 182

    Why the Estado Novo? / Oliveira Vianna 184

    New Year's Address, 1938 / Getulio Vargas 186

    Rural Life / Photographers Unknown 190

    A New Survey of Brazilian Life / Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics 195

    General George C. Marshall's Mission to Brazil / Katherine Tupper Marshall 197

    Comments on the Estado Novo / Bailey W. Diffie 200

    Educational Reform after Twenty Years / Anisio S. Teixeira 204

    Ordinary People: Five Lives Affected by Vargas-Era Reforms / Apolonio de Carvalho, Geraldo Valdelirios Novais, Frederico Heller, Maurilio Thomas Ferreira, Joana de Masi Zero 206

    Vargas's Suicide Letter, 1954 / Getulio Vargas 222

    V. Seeking Democracy and Equity

    Rehearsal for the Coup / Araken Tavora 231

    The Military Regime / Antonio Pedro Tota 235

    Excerpts from the 1967 Brazilian Constitution 238

    Tropicalism and Brazilian Popular Music under Military Rule / Christopher Dunn 241

    Literature under the Dictatorship / Elizabeth Ginway 248

    Pele Speaks / Edson Arantes Nascimento da Silva 254

    The Maximum Norm of the Exercise of Liberty / Grupo da Educacao Moral e Civica 258

    Families of Fishermen Confront the Sharks / Paulo Lima 260

    The Reality of the Brazilian Countryside / Landless Movement (MST) 264

    The "Greatest Administrative Scandal" / Seth Garfield 268

    Life on an Occupied Ship / Marcal Joao Scarante 274

    A Letter from Brazil / Juliano Spyer 277

    Inaugural Address / Fernando Henrique Cardoso 280

    Fernando Henrique Cardoso: Theory and Practice / Ted G. Goertzel 289

    Is Brazil Hopelessly Corrupt? / Roberto DaMatta 295

    VI. Women's Lives

    Aunt Zeze's Tears / Emilia Moncorva Bandeira de Mello 302

    Tarsila and the 1920s / Carol Damian and Cristina Mehrtens 308

    The Integral Woman / Provincia de Guanabara 317

    The Children Always Had Milk / Maria Puerta Ferreira 319

    Women of the Forest / Yolanda and Robert F. Murphy 323

    My Life / Maria das Dores Gomes Batista 327

    A Healer's Story / Maria Geralda Ferreira 331

    Sonia, a Middle-Class Woman / Alison Raphael 334

    Family Life in Recife / Fanny Mitchell 337

    Xuxa and the Televisual Imaginary / Amelia Simpson 343

    Dreams of Uneducated Women / Jose Carlos Sebe Bom Meihy 348

    VII. Race and Ethnic Relations

    A Letter from Brazil, 1918 / Jose Clarana 354

    Growing Up Black in Minas Gerais / Carolina Maria de Jesus 359

    Exotic Peoples / Indian Protection Agency 365

    Brazil: Study in Black, Brown, and Beige / Leslie B. Rout Jr. 367

    Immigrant Ethnicity in Brazil / Jeffrey Lesser 374

    The Myth of Racial Democracy / Abdias do Nascimento 379

    The National Day against Racism / Revista MNU 382

    The Church Tries to Combat Prejudice / Bernardete Toneto 384

    What Color Are You? / Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics 386

    Mixed Blood / Jefferson M. Fish 391

    VIII. Realities

    The Animal Game / Clayton S. Cooper 398

    How Brazil Works / Robert M. Levine 402

    Iansa Is Not Santa Barbara / Ile Axe Opo Afonja 408

    Upward Mobility Is Possible / Alcides Nazario Guerreiro Bruto 411

    Crab and Yoghurt / Tobias Hecht 415

    Voices from the Pavement / Claudia Milito and Helio R. S. Silva 420

    Pixote's Fate / Robert M. Levine 423

    A Letter to President Cardoso / Caius Brandao 430

    The History of the Huni Kui People / Sia Kaxinawa 432

    Urban Indians / Juliano Spyer 436

    Mayor Orders Billboard Shacks Destroyed / Juliana Raposo 441

    Cultural Imperialism at Its Most Fashionable / Roger M. Allen 447

    The Gay and Lesbian Movement in Brazil / James N. Green 454

    Liberation Theology's Rise and Fall / Robin Nagle 462

    IX. Saudades

    Bananas Is My Business / Helena Solberg 471

    The Invention of Tradition on Brazilian Radio / Bryan McCann 474

    Bahia Music Story / Bill Hinchberger 483

    O Axe de Zumbi / Paulo Lima and Bernadete Toneto 487

    At Carnival / Pedro Ribeiro 490

    Two Poets Sing the New World / Jessica Callaway 491

    Two Essays on Sports / Janet Lever and Jose Carlos Sebe Bom Methy 497

    Suggestions for Further Reading 505

    Acknowledgment of Copyrights 511

    Index 519
  • Amelia Simpson

  • “A worthy successor to the pioneering Peru Reader, this volume provides a comprehensive guide to Brazil’s history and culture from the Portuguese colonial past to the postmodern present. Defty crossing disciplines and integrating elite and popular realms, The Brazil Reader is certain to please both the serious student and the general reader.”—Gil Joseph, Yale University — N/A

    “What gives The Brazil Reader its special cachet is freshness, sensitivity, and empathy in its diversity of perspectives on twentieth-century Brazil, from the top down, from the bottom up, and from somewhere in the middle.”—Stanley J. Stein, Princeton University — N/A

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  • Description

    Bordering all but two of South America’s other nations and by far Latin America’s largest country, Brazil differs linguistically, historically, and culturally from Spanish America. Its indigenous peoples share the country with descendants of Portuguese conquerors and the Africans they imported to work as slaves, along with more recent immigrants from southern Europe, Japan, the Middle East, and elsewhere. Capturing the scope of this country’s rich diversity and distinction as no other book has done—with more than a hundred entries from a wealth of perspectives—The Brazil Reader offers a fascinating guide to Brazilian life, culture, and history.

    Complementing traditional views with fresh ones, The Brazil Reader’s historical selections range from early colonization to the present day, with sections on imperial and republican Brazil, the days of slavery, the Vargas years, and the more recent return to democracy. They include letters, photographs, interviews, legal documents, visual art, music, poetry, fiction, reminiscences, and scholarly analyses. They also include observations by ordinary residents, both urban and rural, as well as foreign visitors and experts on Brazil. Probing beneath the surface of Brazilian reality—past and present—The Reader looks at social behavior, women’s lives, architecture, literature, sexuality, popular culture, and strategies for coping with the travails of life in a country where the affluent live in walled compounds to separate themselves from the millions of Brazilians hard-pressed to find food and shelter. Contributing to a full geographic account—from the Amazon to the Northeast and the Central-South—of this country’s singular multiplicity, many pieces have been written expressly for this volume or were translated for it, having never previously been published in English.

    This second book in The Latin America Readers series will interest students, specialists, travelers for both business and leisure, and those desiring an in-depth introduction to Brazilian life and culture.

    About The Author(s)

    Robert M. Levine is Professor of History and Director of Latin American Studies at the University of Miami. He has published extensively on Brazil and is former chair of the Columbia University Seminar on Brazil. His previous books include The Brazilian Photographs of Genevieve Naylor, 1940–1942, and Images of History, both also published by Duke University Press.

    John J. Crocitti is Assistant Professor of History at San Diego Mesa College.

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