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  • Acknowledgments xi

    A Note on Style xiii

    Introduction 1

    I The Search for "Lo Mexicano"

    Introduction 9

    The Mexican Character / Joel Poinsett 11

    The Cosmic Race / José Vasconcelos 15

    The Sons of La Malinche / Octavio Paz 20

    The Problem of National Culture / Guillermo Bonfil Batalla 28

    Does It Mean Anything to Be Mexican? / Roger Bartra 33

    Mexico City 1992 / Alma Guillermoprieto 41

    Two Ranchera Songs / José Alfredo Jiménez and Cuco Sánchez 53

    II Ancient Civilizations

    Introduction 55

    The Origins of the Aztecs / Anonymous 57

    The Cost of Courage in Aztec Society / Inga Clendinnen 61

    Popol Vuh / Anonymous 79

    The Meaning of Maize for the Maya / J. Eric Thompson 86

    Omens Foretelling the Conquest / Anonymous 92

    III Conquest and Colony

    Inroduction 95

    The Spaniards’ Entry into Tenochtitlán / Bernal Díaz del Castillo and Hernán Cortés 97

    Cortés and Montezuma / J.H. Eliott 105

    The Battles of Tenochtitlán and Tlateloclo / Anonymous 109

    The Spiritual Conquest, Fray Jerónimo de Mendieta 114

    Why the Indians Are Dying / Alonso de Zorita 122

    The Colonial Latifundio / Enrique Florescano 131

    A Baroque Archbishop-Viceroy / Irving Leonard 141

    On Men's Hypocrisy / Sor Juana 156

    The Itching Parrot, the Priest, and the Subdelegate / José Joaquín Fernández de Lizardi 160

    IV Trials of the Young Republic

    Introduction 169

    The Siege of Guanajuato / Lucas Alamán 171

    Sentiments of the Nation / José María Morelos 189

    Plan of Iguala / Agustín de Iturbide 192

    Women and War in Mexico / Frances Calderón de la Barca 196

    The Glorious Revolution of 1844 / Guillermo Prieto 206

    Décimas Dedicated to Santa Anna’s Leg / Anonymous 213

    War and Finance, Mexican Style / Juan Bautista Morales 217

    A Conservative Procession of Faith / The Editors of El Tiempo 220

    Considerations Relating to the Political and Social Situation / Mariana Otero 226

    Liberals and the Land / Luis Gonzáles y Gonzáles 239

    Standard Plots and Rural Resistance / Raymond B. Craib 252

    Offer to the Crown to Maximilian / Junta of Conservative Notables 263

    A Letter from Mexico / Empress Carlotta 265

    The Triumph of the Republic / Benito Juárez 270

    Pofirio Díaz Visits Yucatán / Channing Arnold and Frederick J. Tabor Frost 273

    Scenes from a Lumber Camp / B. Traven 279

    President Díaz, Hero of the Americas / James Creelman 285

    Gift of the Skeletons / Anonymous 292

    Special Section

    Mexican History in Photographs / John Mraz 297

    V Revolution

    Introduction 333

    Land and Liberty / Ricardo Flores Magón 339

    The Restoration of the Ejido / Luis Cabrera 344

    Zapatistas in the Palace / Martín Luis Guzmán 351

    Mexico Has Been Turned into a Hell / William O. Jenkins 357

    Pancho Villa / John Reed 364

    La Punitiva / Anonymous 372

    Pedro Martinez / Oscar Lewis 375

    Juan the Chamula / Ricardo Pozas 387

    The Constitution of 1917: Articles 27 and 123 398

    An Agrarian Encounter / Rosalie Evans 403

    Ode to Cuanhtémoc / Carlos Pellicer 406

    The Socialist ABC's / Anonymous 411

    The Ballad of Valentin of the Sierra / Anonymous 418

    Mexico Must Become a Nation of Institutions and Laws / Plutarco Elias Calles 421

    The Formation of the Single-Party state / Carlos Fuentes 426

    The Rough and Tumble Career of Pedro Crespo / Gilbert M. Joseph and Allen Wells 428

    A Convention in Zacapu / Salvador Lemus Fernandez 439

    The Agrarian Reform in La Laguna / Fernando Benitez 445

    The Oil Expropriation / Josephus Daniels 452

    Cardenas and the Masses / Arturo Anguiano 456

    VI The Perils of Modernity

    Introduction 461

    They Gave Us the Land / Juan Rulfo 465

    Mexico's Crisis / Daniel Cosio Villegas 470

    Struggles of a Campesino Leader / Ruben Jaramillo 482

    Art and Corruption / David Alfaro Siqueiros 492

    The Two faces of Acapulco during the Golden Age / Andrew Sackett 500

    Mexico / Sid Tepper and Roy C. Bennett 511

    The Dark Deeds of "El Negro" Durazo / José González G. 512

    The Sinking City / Joel Simon 520

    Ciudad Nezahualcóyotl / Roberto Vallarino 536

    Modesta Gomez / Rosario Castellanos 545

    VII From the Ruins

    Introduction 553

    The Student Movement of 1968 / Elena Poniatowska 555

    El Santo's Strange Career / Anne Rubenstein 570

    After the Earthquake / Victims' Coordinating Council 579

    Letters to Cuauhtémoc Cárdenas / Anonymous 591

    Corazón del Rocanrol / Rubén Martínez 598

    I Don't Believe Them at All / Maldita Vecindad y los Hijos del Quinto Patio 612

    The COCEI of Juchitan, Oaxaca: Two Documents / Leopoldo de Gyves de la Cruz and COCEI 619

    Women of Juchitan / Jeffrey W. Rubin 625

    EZLN Demands at the Dialogue Table / Zapatista Army of National Liberation 638

    The Long Journey from Despair to Hope / Subcomandante Marcos 646

    A Tzotzil Chronicle / Marian Peres Tsu 655

    Debtors' Revenge / Heather Williams 670

    Mexicans Would Not Be Bought, Coerced / Wayne A. Cornelius 684

    VIII The Border and Beyond

    Introduction 687

    Plan of San Diego / Anonymous 689

    The Mexican Connection / Rudolfo Acuña 692

    The Maquiladoras / William Langewiesche 698

    Dompe Days / Luis Alberto Urrea 708

    Pedro P., Coyote / Judith Adler Hellman 717

    There's a Party Going On in Texas / Anonymous 728

    Two Poems about Immigrant Life / Pat Mora and Gina Valdes 731

    The Deadly Harvest of the Sierra Madre / Alan Weisman 734

    Two Songs about Drug Smuggling / Salomé Guitérrez and Paulino Vargas 747

    The New World Border / Guillermo Gómez-Peña 750

    Suggestions for Further Reading 757

    Acknowledgment of Copyrights 763

    Index 773

  • ”For any journey through Mexican history, politics, social movements, and popular culture, travelers should start with this fascinating collection. Expertly edited and translated, each document adds to the rich landscape and each is cogently introduced to the reader. The perfect source book for any college course on Mexico from the Aztecs and Mayas to the 21st century.”—John H. Coatsworth, Harvard University — N/A

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  • Description

    The Mexico Reader is a vivid introduction to muchos Méxicos—the many Mexicos, or the many varied histories and cultures that comprise contemporary Mexico. Unparalleled in scope and written for the traveler, student, and expert alike, the collection offers a comprehensive guide to the history and culture of Mexico—including its difficult, uneven modernization; the ways the country has been profoundly shaped not only by Mexicans but also by those outside its borders; and the extraordinary economic, political, and ideological power of the Roman Catholic Church. The book looks at what underlies the chronic instability, violence, and economic turmoil that have characterized periods of Mexico’s history while it also celebrates the country’s rich cultural heritage.

    A diverse collection of more than eighty selections, The Mexico Reader brings together poetry, folklore, fiction, polemics, photoessays, songs, political cartoons, memoirs, satire, and scholarly writing. Many pieces are by Mexicans, and a substantial number appear for the first time in English. Works by Octavio Paz and Carlos Fuentes are included along with pieces about such well-known figures as the larger-than-life revolutionary leaders Pancho Villa and Emiliano Zapata; there is also a comminiqué from a more recent rebel, Subcomandante Marcos. At the same time, the book highlights the perspectives of many others—indigenous peoples, women, politicians, patriots, artists, soldiers, rebels, priests, workers, peasants, foreign diplomats, and travelers.

    The Mexico Reader explores what it means to be Mexican, tracing the history of Mexico from pre-Columbian times through the country’s epic revolution (1910–17) to the present day. The materials relating to the latter half of the twentieth century focus on the contradictions and costs of postrevolutionary modernization, the rise of civil society, and the dynamic cross-cultural zone marked by the two thousand-mile Mexico-U.S. border. The editors have divided the book into several sections organized roughly in chronological order and have provided brief historical contexts for each section. They have also furnished a lengthy list of resources about Mexico, including websites and suggestions for further reading.

    About The Author(s)

    Gilbert M. Joseph is Farnam Professor of History and Director of Latin American and Iberian Studies at Yale University. He is coeditor of Everyday Forms of State Formation: Revolution and the Negotiation of Rule in Modern Mexico and Close Encounters of Empire: Writing the Cultural History of U.S.–Latin American Relations (both published by Duke University Press).

    Timothy J. Henderson is Associate Professor of History at Auburn University Montgomery. He is the author of The Worm in the Wheat: Rosalie Evans and Agrarian Struggle in the Puebla-Tlaxcala Valley of Mexico, 1908–1927 (also published by Duke University Press).

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