Ethnicity, Markets, and Migration in the Andes

At the Crossroads of History and Anthropology

Ethnicity, Markets, and Migration in the Andes

Book Pages: 440 Illustrations: 6 maps Published: September 1995

Subjects
Anthropology > Cultural Anthropology, History > Latin American History, Latin American Studies > Andes

Until now, Andean peasants have primarily been thought of by scholars as isolated subsistence farmers, "resistant" to money and to different markets in the region. Ethnicity, Markets, and Migration in the Andes overturns this widely held assumption and puts in its place a new perspective as it explores the dynamic between Andean cultural, social, and economic practices and the market forces of a colonial and postcolonial mercantile economy.
Bringing together the work of outstanding scholars in Andean history, anthropology, and ethnohistory, these pioneering essays show how, from the very earliest period of Spanish rule, Andean peasants and their rulers embraced the new economic opportunities and challenged or subverted the new structures introduced by the colonial administration. They also convincingly explain why in the twentieth century the mistaken idea developed that Andean peasants were conservative and unable to participate effectively in different markets, and reveal how closely ethnic inequalities were tied to evolving market relations. Inviting a critical reconsideration of ethnic, class, and gender issues in the context of rural Andean markets, this book will revise the prevailing view of Andean history and provide a more fully informed picture of the complex mercantile activities of Andean peasants.

Praise

“[A] major contribution to the ongoing debate about the relationship between tradition and change over a long period of time.” — Hispanic American Historical Review

“[A]n intriguing work which combines the talents of historians and anthropologists to present a comprehensive view of the nature and extent of indigeneous Andean peoples’ participation in trade from the time of the conquest to contemporary days. It is both a showcase of the skilled use of historical archives and current ethnography to gain insight into how indigeneous populations adapted to the demands of the imposed colonial order, and an excellent, basic introduction to the field for those new to the area of Andean scholarship.” — Monica Lindh de Montoya , Ethnos

“[I]nsightful and well-crafted essays. . . . [T]his volume offers an excellent way of accessing many of the crucial issues debated about Andean markets and exchange during the past quarter century.” — Nils Jacobsen, Journal of Social History

“[T]he chapters in this collection are well written and very insightful. Thus, this volume will long serve as an invaluable reference tool, not only for Andeanists but for other Latin Americanists as well as anthropologists and historians who are working in other areas of the world and have strong political-economic inclination.” — Journal of Developing Areas

“Worth reading as an introduction to the study of indigenous involvement in market economies in one Latin American region. It contains insights and methodological approaches that could be applied to the study of rural history in other Latin American regions.” — H-Net Reviews

“Providing a readily available English-language version of the earlier study published in Bolivia, this important work undoubtedly will become a standard reference source for Andean specialists. Its thoroughly documented and provocative essays, as well as extensive annotations and bibliography, detail historiographical trends and issues.” — Joseph A. Gagliano, Colonial Latin American Historical Review

“The essays in this fine collection raise fundamental questions about the socio-economic evolution of Andean societies, which should interest a broad readership of scholars and students alike interested in peasant studies.” — Kenneth J. Andrien, Journal of Interdisciplinary History

“The value of the collection is that it covers the most salient and current interpretations of the available social data. . . on the evolution of Andean traditional socioeconomic customs and their interaction with the initial market mechanisms introduced by Spaniards.” — Latin American Research Review

“This book focuses on Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia in a series of essays by a number of renowned authorities in the field of Andean studies. There are outstandingly good, interesting and clearly written essays by John Murran and two by Olivia Harris which challenge many of the stereotypical ways of looking at Andean man and his world. . . . Recommended reading and a good textbook for social anthropologists and economists, made even more useful by the copious notes and generous bibliography.” — British Bulletin of Publications

“This collection is an important contribution to Andean ethnohistory. . . . Highly recommended.” — Choice

“This is a satisfyingly hefty tome, full of scholarly delights. Every article is the result of serious research, whether in modern communities or colonial archives; no one, however conversant with Andean studies, could read it without discovering facts previously unknown. The book overall is remarkably successful, in large part because the ambitious time span—from just before the conquest to the present—is balanced by a narrow topical focus and the close correspondence of theoretical and methodological approaches among the various authors. It is rare indeed to find an edited volume in which the articles work so well together; yet the result is not bland homogeneity but a lively discussion among a group of like-minded but independent scholars—as though one were listening in on the ‘series of conversations in a favorite London pub’ said to have been the book’s genesis.” — Mary Weismantel, Journal of Social History

“Well-written and scholarly, the essays in this collection focus on cultures of the southern Andes in Latin America. The authors are historians and anthropologists, but all transgress the boundaries of their disciplines. . . . [T]he essays range across time from the conquest until today; cover ethnic relations, migration, and gender; attend to power, politics, and taxes; and explore nonmarket exchanges as well as cultural constructions of production and ecology.” — Stephen Gudeman , American Anthropologist

" A fundamental challenge to established stereotypes of the Andean economy, this book will lead to a rethinking of received ideas. Including work by many of the leading scholars in the field, it will be obligatory reading for those interested in indigenous history and anthropology. It offers a different perspective on the economy by focusing on the indigenous population, and demonstrates conclusively how the Indians succeeded in linking their complex traditional systems with the new opportunities offered by expanded markets." — Nathan Wachtel, College de France

"This is an impressive collection of essays [and] a fundamental reference book in Andean studies." — Walter Mignolo, Duke University

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Author/Editor Bios Back to Top

Brooke Larson is Associate Professor of History and Director of the Latin American and Caribbean Center at the State University of New York, Stony Brook.

Olivia Harris is Senior Lecturer and Chair of the Anthropology Department at Goldsmith’s College, London.

Enrique Tandeter is Chair of the Department of History at the University of Buenos Aires and an Associate at the Center for the Study of State and Society in Buenos Aires.

Table of Contents Back to Top
List of Maps ix

Acknowledgments 1

I. Introduction 3

1. Andean Communities, Political Cultures, and Markets: The Changing Contours of a Field / Brooke Larson 5

II. From Inca to Spanish Rule: The Making of Indians and Markets 55

2. Did Tribute and Markets Prevail in the Andes before the European invasion? / John V. Murra 57

3. The Variety and Ambiguity of Native Andean Intervention in European Colonial Markets / Steve J. Stern 73

4. Exchange in the Ethnic Territories between 1530 and 1567: The Visitas of Huanuco and Chucuito / Carlos Sempat Assadourian 101

5. Exchange and Markets in the Sixteenth Century: A View from the North / Susan E. Ramirez 135

III. Andean Tribute, Migration, and Trade: Remapping the Boundaries of Ethnicity and Exchange 165

6. Indian Migration and Social Change in Seventeenth-Century Charcas / Thierry Saignas 167

7. Indians in Late Colonial Markets: Sources and Numbers / Enripe Tandeter, Vilma Milletich, Maria Matilda Olllier, and Beatriz Ruibal 196

8. Markets, Power, and the Politics of Exchange in Tapacari, c.1780 and 1980 / Brooke Larson and Rosario Leon 224

IV. Negotiating the Meanings of Market Exchange: Community and Hierarchy in Three Andean Contexts 257

9. Ethnic Calendars and Market Interventions Among the Ayllus of Lipes during the Nineteenth Century / Tristan Platt 259

10. The Sources and Meanings of Money: Beyond the Market Paradigm in an Ayllu of Northern Potosi / Olivia Harris 297

11. "Women Are More Indian": Ethnicity and Gender in a Community near Cuzco / Marisol de la Cadena 329

V. Conclusion 349

12. Ethnic Identity and Market Relations: Indians and Mestizos in the Andes / Olivia Harris 351

Glossary 391

Selected Bibliography 397

Contributors 419

Index 421
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Additional InformationBack to Top
Paper ISBN: 978-0-8223-1647-3 / Cloth ISBN: 978-0-8223-1633-6
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