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  • The Viviani-Joffre Mission to the United States, April-May 1917: A Reassessment

    Greenhalgh, E.

    The French mission to the United States in April 1917 on America’s entry into World War I is usually acclaimed as a great success. The mission’s aim was to fix the main lines of cooperation between American and Allied forces. However, in the context of the relationship during the period of American neutrality as revealed by the French propaganda effort in the United States, and in comparison to the British mission sent to Washington at the same time, the mission seems less successful and its achievements less clearcut. The promise of autonomy and of artillery supplies that Marshal Joseph Joffre, the mission’s military leader, gave to the Americans had significant consequences on the war effort, and the competitive spirit between the French and British missions undercut the alliance’s image in Washington.

    Quand les Etats-Unis déclarèrent la guerre en avril 1917, la France y envoya une mission politique et militaire pour déterminer dans leurs grandes lignes les directives de la coopération des forces américaines avec les forces alliées. Cette mission est censée avoir connu un grand succès. En plaçant la mission dans deux contextes—celui des relations francoaméricaines pendant la période de neutralité révélées par l’effort de propagande française envers les Etats-Unis, et celui des relations francobritanniques révélées par l’esprit de compétitivité qui se manifesta entre la mission du maréchal Joffre et René Viviani et celle des Britanniques qui arriva à Washington à la même date— notre analyse de la mission permet d’en évaluer les résultats qui étaient moins positifs. Effectivement les promesses faites par le maréchal et la concurrence avec la mission britannique nuisirent à l’effort de guerre allié, surtout en 1918.

    Debt and Taxes: Village Relations and Economic Obligations in Seventeenth-Century Auvergne

    Bonar, D. L.

    This article looks at tax collection practices at the village level through the lens of microcredit—a system of local, undocumented, informal credit that, in a semimonetized economy like the Auvergne, inevitably comprised a wide range of exchanges of goods and obligations. Research on the historical role of microcredit offers fruitful ways to understand social relations in rural Auvergne, especially as they mediated and were mediated by local practices of exchange and tax collection. Conversely, studying the appropriation of tax collection and how its practices entered a local economy of informal credit expands our general understanding of microcredit.

    Cet article examine les pratiques de la collection des impôts, « la collecte », au village à travers le microcrédit. Le crédit au niveau local, non-documenté, dans une région semimonétaire se fait souvent par échanges de biens et d’obligations. Les recherches sur le rôle historique du microcrédit nous offrent des moyens de comprendre les relations sociales en Auvergne rurale, surtout comment elles étaient négociées par les coutumes d’échange et de « collecte », mais aussi comment elles influencent ces pratiques. En revanche, l’étude particulière de l’appropriation de la collecte et les moyens par lesquelles ces pratiques sont absorbées par une économie locale du microcr&ea

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